Table 13 OL: Prison-based interventions for drug users

 

No. of prisons

No. of prisons intervention is implemented in

 

Abstinence-oriented programmes

Substitution treatment

Harm reduction measures

 

Detoxification

Drug-free units

Therapeutic communities in prison

Blood screening

Vaccination programmes

Provision of disinfectants

Needle exchange

Provision of condoms

BE

34

34

2

1

34

34

0

34

0

34

 

 

 

Four more planned

‘Believe’: 8-month programme with TC-methodology, but limited involvement of ex-users and no encounter groups. Five more units are planned

Therapeutic freedom of physicians can impede implication

 

Hepatitis B vaccination programme is being prepared. Problem: financing

On demand from medical service. No stocks in the cells allowed

Injection drug use is very rare. The policy will be reviewed if frequency would change

On sale and available for free at medical service and in rooms used for conjugal visits

DK

15

15

6

1

15

0

15

15

0

15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hepatitis B

 

 

 

DE

222

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

About 800 treatment slots available for detox and maintenance

 

 

On a non-official basis at least regionally available

At least four prisons have offered this during recent years

Yes, but sometimes rather bureaucratic procedure needed

EL

28

1

1

2

0

28

28

0

0

0

 

 

Psychiatric Hospital of Korydallos Prison (note: these two services are by no means part of any comprehensive abstinence programmes within the psychiatric hospital. Prisoners’ use of the services is only interim

 

 

 

Measures are being provided by law. However, in practice, the measures are poorly implemented and their implementation has been reduced to new prisoners only. In any case, prisoners’ consent is required

 

Not provided by law

Not provided by law

Not provided by law

ES

68

68

16

1

68

68

68

 

11

68

 

 

All prisons

Drug-free modules

Therapeutic community for prison inmates (men and women)

 

 

 

 

In 2002, planned to be implemented in all prisons. These programmes are working in 100% Spanish prisons since 2003.

 

FR

186

186

0

0

186

186

186

186

0

186

 

 

Specific detoxification programme does not exist. Individual and voluntary participation

Experimentation led from 1999 to 2001, but stopped because of operation running problems

 

Some difficulties have been identified in the implementation. The last survey by the ministry of health found that in 20 prisons (small ones) substitution treatments were not dispensed to prisoners

Blood screening is voluntary and confidential. Proposed screening for HIV and for people with a risk factor for hepatitis when first entering prison

Proposition for hepatitis B vaccination when first entering prison

Free systematic distribution to all prisoners

 

Free; available in all prisons in the medical units, sometimes in other places

IE

17

11

2

0

5

17

17

0

0

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

IT

217

25-50%

0

0

 

25-50%

 

0

0

0

 

 

The national health service implemented drug treatment services (Ser.T.) to provide drug treatment in prison. In 2001, 2,880 people received methadone detoxification treatment; 1,230 received symptomatic treatments; and 257 received clonidine or naltrexone

Not currently provided

Not currently available

As for detoxification. In addition to the 2,880 detoxification treatments, 1,539 drug users received methadone for 3-6 months and 872 for over 6 months

As the SerT. and local health authorities increasingly provide health care, these services are being made available more widely

As the SerT. and local health authorities increasingly provide health care, these services are being made available more widely

Not provided

Not provided

Not provided

LU

 

2

0

0

2

75-100%

75-100%

0

0

50-75%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus

 

 

 

NL

55

55

15

0

 

55

0

0

0

0

 

 

For longer-term imprisonments

Two for women. No. of DFUs is still being reduced

 

Probably in a minority of prisons

Only when requested by prisoners. General medical screening is carried out is all cases

 

 

 

 

AT

29

29

6

8

29

29

29

29

0

29

 

 

In all prisons through medical doctor

 

 

Until recently with methadone; there is now a pilot project with other substances

On demand

On demand

On demand

 

Compulsory when entering prison

PT

53

53

5

1

3

53

53

53

0

53

 

 

Available upon request; no structured detoxification programme. Abstinence-oriented treatment is available, on demand, in all prisons, either through the prisons’ own programmes or through cooperation with the nearest specialised treatment centre

The five drug-free units have a total capacity of 192 beds: Tires (female), 28; Leiria (16 to 25 years old), 29; Porto, 20; Sta. Cruz do Bispo, 28; Lisbon (“Ala A”), 95

“Ala G” in Lisbon has a 45-bed capacity

Services of the General Directorate of Prisons - in 2001, 381 patients were in treatment: 101 in Lisbon, 30 in Tires and 250 in Porto. In conjunction with the Ministry of Health. Through protocols with the SPTT (Ministry of Helath) inmates in 33 prisons were entered into methadone substitution programmes, and those in a further 36 prisons were entered into antagonists programmes. Susbtitution treatment is available, on demand, in all prisons, either through the prison’ own programmes or through cooperation with the nearest specialised treatment centre

 

Hepatitis B vaccination programme is available in all prisons for inmates and employees

The distribution of disinfectants is regularly recommended to all the prisons

 

Available at the barber’s and in the health centres of each prison

FI

58

35

48

12

16

35

35

35

0

35

 

 

In all prison units (35)

48 drug-free units in 35 prison units

12 communities in 48 drug-free units

13 (+ 3 health care units) - only one open prison unit. Treatment available only if substitution treatment has started before the person enters prison

In all prison units

In all prison units

In all prison units

 

In all prison units

SE

56

56

20

0

 

56

0

0

0

0

 

 

All prisons refer serious cases to hospital. Most detoxification cases are dealt with when on remand

From 1 July 2002, all prisons have drug-free units. In total, there are 525 places (beds) out of a total of 4,200

 

 

HIV tests are generally available for prisoners

Planned but not yet introduced

 

 

 

UK

136

82

89

0

30

0

111

16

0

68

 

 

There are 60 prison-based drug treatment programmes running 39 rehabilitation, 7 therapeutic community and 14 twelve-step programmes

Usually voluntary drug testing in prison wings or units

One therapeutic community is under review

The telephone survey asked specifically about methadone. Usually, short-term prisoners already taking prescription methadone in the community, pregnant women or those who were HIV positive were eligible; 18 prisons prescribed methadone on a maintenance basis and 21 on a reduction basis. Nine prisons offered both maintenance and reduction prescriptions

All but two of these 119 prisons offered screening for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The other two only screened for hepatitis B. Most screening took place on reception, although a few prisons advertised the availability of screening to all inmates and offered screening on request

All of the 11 prisons provided hepatitis B vaccination programmes

Usually available through health care

Not permitted

Condoms are usually offered on discharge or on home leave

NO

42

3

16

1

 

 

 

42

0

42

 

 

 

38% of prisons (16 units) offer such services

The project called "Stifinneren"

 

0

If needed

All prison units offer such services. Health responsibility

Health responsibility

Health responsibility