References

References

ACMD (Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs) (2000) Reducing Drug-related Deaths. A report by the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. The Stationery Office: London.

Adalbjarnardottir, S. and Rafnsson, F. D. (2002) Adolescent antisocial behaviour and substance use: longitudinal analyses. Addictive Behaviours 27: 227–40.

Amossé, T., Doussin, A., Fizdion, J.-M., et al. (2001) Vie et santé des jeunes sans domicile ou en situation précaire. Enquête INED, Paris et petite couronne, février–mars 1999, série resultants, Biblio no. 1355. CREDES, Paris.

Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki (2000) Evaluation report of the Leonardo da Vinci programme: needs and methods assessment for vocational training in juvenile delinquents and adolescents at risk – ORESTIS. Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki: Thessaloniki.

BAG (Bundesamt für Gesundheit) (1997) Empfehlungen zur kombinierten Hepatitis-A- und Hepatitis-B-Impfung. Bulletin No. 3, 27 January 1997.

Bargagli et al. (2002) ‘Mortality among problem drug users in Europe: a project of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems 4: 5–12.

BBC News World Edition (2003) ID cards for teenagers launched, Wednesday 22 January 2003.

Beck, F., Peretti-Watel, P., Choquet, M., et al. (2000) Consommation de substances psychoactives chez les 14–18 ans scolarisés: premiers résultats de l’enquête ESPAD 1999; évolutions 1993–1999. Tendances 6: 6.

Beck, F. (2001) Santé, mode de vie et usages de drogues à 18 ans. ESCAPAD, OFDT: Paris.

Beck, F., Legleye, S. and Perreti-Wattel, P. (2002) Enquête sur les représentations, opinions et perceptions sur les psychotropes (EORPP) survey. Available at OFDT (Observatoire français des drogues et des toxicamanies): Paris.

Bennett, T. (2000) Drugs and Crime: the Results of the Second Stage of the NEW-ADAM programme. Research Study 205. Home Office: London.

Bird, S. M. and Rotily, M. (2002) Inside methodologies: for counting blood-borne viruses and injector-inmates’ behavioural risks – results from European prisons. The Howard Journal, 41, No. 2.

Boys, A., Marsden, J., Fountain, J., et al. (1999) What influences young people’s use of drugs? a qualitative study of decision-making. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy 6 (3).

Brochu, S. (1999) Drogue et criminalité une relation complexe. Les Presses de l’Université: Montréal.

Brook, D. W., et al. (2002) Drug use and the risk of major depressive disorder, alcohol dependence, and substance use disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 59: 1039–44.

Brugal, M. T., Barrio, G., de la Fuente, L., et al. (2002) Factors associated with non-fatal overdose: assessing the effect of frequency and route of heroin administration. Addiction 97: 319–27.

Bundeszentrale für Gesundheitliche Aufklärung (2002) Drug Affinity Among Young People in the Federal Republic of Germany 2001. Bundeszentrale für Gesundheitliche Aufklärung: Cologne.

Buster, M. (2002) What can we learn from literature? In: Reinås, K. T., Waal, H., Buster, M. C. A., et al. (eds) Strategic Choices for Reducing Overdose Deaths in Four European Cities. A joint project of the cities of Olso, Amsterdam, Copenhagen and Frankfurt am Main, Part II: Appendix, pp. 97–107. Alcohol and Drug Addiction Service: Oslo.

Bye, E. K. (2002) Alcohol and Drugs in Norway, Statistikk ‘02. Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research: Oslo.

Calafat, A., Bohrn, K., Juan, M., et al. (1999) Night Life in Europe and Recreative Drug Use. IREFREA and the European Commission: Valencia.

Calafat, A., et al. (2003) Enjoying the nightlife in Europe. The role of moderation.

Calderone, B., Fornasiero, A., Lolli, S. and Montanari, L. (2001) Prostituzione tra dinamiche di mercato e percorsi individuali. Una ricerca qualitative sulla prostituzione femminile di strada in Emilia-Romagna. Rapporto di ricerca: Bologna.

Carlen, P. (1996) Jigsaw: a Political Criminology of Youth Homelessness. Open University Press: Milton Keynes, UK.

Carpentier, C. (2002). Drug Related Social Exclusion, in the Context of socio-demographic and Economic Indicators. Working paper. EMCDDA: Lisbon.

CEIES (Statistics Users Council) (1999) Social Exclusion Statistics, Conference Proceedings, Joint Conference, 22 November 1999. Imac Research: Esher, UK.

Central Committee on the Treatment of Heroin Addicts (2002) Medical Co-prescription of Heroin, Two Randomized Controlled Trials. Report by van den Brink, W., Hendriks, V. M., Blanken, P., et al. Central Committee on the Treatment of Heroin Addicts: Utrecht.

Commonwealth of Australia (2002) Return on Investment in Needle and Syringe Programs in Australia. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing, Commonwealth of Australia.

Council of European Union (2000) European Action Plan on Drugs (2000–2004).

De Zwart, W. M., Monshouwer, K., and Smit, F. (2000). Jeugd en riskant gedrag. Kerngegevens 1999. Roken, drinken, drugsgebruik en gokken onder scholieren vanaf tien jaar. Utrecht: Trimbos-instituut.

Dettmer, K. (2002) First-aid training for drug users and (in emergency) naloxone. Report on a pilot study by Fixpunkt e.V., Berlin. Paper presented at EMCDDA expert meeting ‘Overdose prevention and management’, Lisbon, 24–25 October 2002.

DrugScope (2000) Vulnerable Young People and Drugs: Opportunities to Tackle Inequalities. DrugScope: London.

Eland, A. and Rigter, H. (2001) Immigrants and Drug Treatment. Background Study. Bureau National Drug Monitor: Utrecht.

EMCDDA (2002a) Annual Report on the State of the Drugs Problem in the European Union and Norway. EMCDDA: Lisbon.

EMCDDA (2002b) Update and Complete the Analysis of Drug Use, Consequences and Correlates Amongst Minorities. EMCDDA Scientific Report. EMCDDA: Lisbon.

EMCDDA (2002c) Strategies and coordination in the field of drugs in the European Union, a descriptive review, November 2002.

EMCDDA (2003a) Alternatives to Prison for Drug Dependent Offenders. Expert Meeting Report 2003. EMCDDA: Lisbon.

EMCDDA (2003b) Social reintegration in the EU and Norway.

Engineer, R., Phillips, A., Thompson, J. and Nicholls, J. (2003) Drunk and Disorderly: a Qualitative Study of Binge Drinking among 18–24 Year Olds. Home Office Research Study No. 262. Home Office: London.

EORG (European Opinion Research Group) (2002) Attitudes and Opinions of Young People in the EU on Drugs. Eurobarometer 57.2/Special Eurobarometer 172. Report to the Directorate-General for Justice and Home Affairs. EORG: Brussels.

ESPAD (European School Surveys Project) (2001) Alcohol and other Drug use Among Students in 30 European Countries (B. Hibbell, B. Andersson, S. Ahlström, O. Balakireva, et al., the Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), the Pompidou Group of the Council of Europe, December 2000).

European Council (2001) Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Draft Joint Report on Social Inclusion [COM (2001) 565 final], available on the web.

Expert Group on The Probation and Welfare Services (1999).

Farrell, M., Neeleman, J., Gossop, M., et al. (1996). A Review of the Legislation, Regulation and Delivery of Methadone in 12 Member States in the European Union. Brussels: The European Commission.

Farrell, M., Verster, A., Davoli, M., et al. (2000) Reviewing Current Practice in Drug-substitution Treatment in the European Union. EMCDDA: Lisbon.

Ferrari, A., Manaresi, S., Castellini, P., et al. (2001) Overdose da oppiacei: analisi dei soccorsi effettuati dal Servizio Emergenze Sanitarie ‘118’ Modena Soccorso, nel 1997. Bollettinio per lê Farmacodipendenze e l’Alcoolismo, Anno XXIV 2001, no 2.

Field-Smith, M., Bland, J., Taylor, J., et al. (2002) Trends in Death Associated with Abuse of Volatile Substances 1971–2000. Report No. 15. Department of Public Health Sciences and Department of Cardiological Sciences, Toxicology Unit, St. George’s Hospital Medical School: London.

FitzGerald, M., Stockdale, J. and Hale, C. (2003) Young People and Street Crime. Youth Justice Board for England and Wales: London.

Fundación Secretariado General Gitano (2002) Grupos étnicos minoritarios y consumo de drogas. Fundación Secretariado General Gitano: Madrid.

Gallie, D. and Paugam, S. (2002) Social Precarity and Social Integration. Eurobarometer 56.1. Report to the European Commission, Directorate-General Employment. EORG: Brussels.

Godfrey, C., Eaton, G., McDougall, C. and Culyer, A. (2002) The economic and social costs of Class A drug use in England and Wales, 2000. Home Office Research Study 249. Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate: London.

Goulden C. and Sondhi, A. (2001) At the Margins: Drug Use by Vulnerable Young People in the 1998/99 Youth Lifestyles Survey. Home Office Research Study 228, London.

Grant, B. F. and Dawson, D. A. (1997) Age at onset of alcohol use and its association with DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: results from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. Journal of Substance Abuse 9: 103–10.

Griffiths, C. (2003) Deaths related to drug poisoning: results for England and Wales, 1997–2001. Health Statistics Quarterly, 17 (Spring 2003): 65–71.

Griffiths, P., Vingoe, L., Jansen, K., et al. (1997) Insights: New Trends in Synthetic Drugs. EMCDDA: Lisbon.

Hammersley, R., Marsland, L. and Reid, M. (2003) Substance Use by Young Offenders: the Impact of the Normalisation of Drug Use in the Early Years of the 21st Century. Home Office Research Study 261. Home Office: London.

Hannon, F., Kelleher, C. and Friel, S. (2000) General Healthcare Study of the Irish Prisoner Population. Government Publications: Dublin.

Hansen, W. (1992) School-based substance abuse prevention: a review of the state of the art in curriculum, 1980–1990. Health Education Research 7: 403–30.

Hariga, F., Goosdeel, A. and Raedemaker, A. F. (1998) Opération boule-de-neige sida, hépatites, overdoses. Carnets du Risque 15. Modus Vivendi: Brussels.

Hickey, C. (2002) Crime and Homelessness. Focus Ireland and PACE: Dublin.

Hurley, S. F., Jolley, D. J. and Kaldor, J. M. (1997) Effectiveness of needle-exchange programmes for prevention of HIV infection. Lancet 349: 1797–800.

Kavounidi, T. (1996) Social exclusion: concept, community initiatives, the Greek experience and policy dilemmas. In: Dimensions of Social Exclusion in Greece (ed. D. Karantinos, L. Maratou-Alibranti and E. Fronimou), pp. 47–96. Athens: EKKE.

Kopp, P. and Fenoglio, P. (2003) Public Spending on Drugs in the European Union During the 1990s – Retrospective Research. EMCDDA: Lisbon.

Kraus, L. and Püschel, K. (eds) (2002) Prävention von drogenbedingten Not- und Todesfällen. Lambertus: Freiburg, Germany.

Lehto-Salo, P., Kuuri, A., Matttunen, M., et al. (2002) POLKU-tutkimus. Tutkimus nuorista kolmessa koulukodissa – Psykiatrinen ja neuropsykiatrinen näkökulma. Aiheita 16. STAKES: Helsinki.

Lepère, B., Gourarier, L., Sanchez, M., et al. (2001) Diminution du nombre de surdoses mortelles à l’héroïne en France, depuis 1994. A propos du role des traitements de substitution. Annales de Médicine Interne 152 (suppl. au no. 3): lS5–12.

Liebschutz, J., Savetsky J. B., Saitz R., et al. (2002) The relationship between sexual and physical abuse and substance abuse consequences. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 22: 121–8.

Lloyd, C. (1998) Risk factors for problem drug use: Identifying vulnerable groups. Drugs, Education, Preventionnand Policy 5 (3).

Lourenço, N. and Carvalho, M. (2002) Jovens deliquentes e drogas: Espaços e trajectories. Lisbon (unpublished report)

Lupton, R., Wilson, A., May, T., et al. (2002) A rock and a hard place: drug markets in deprived neighbourhoods. Home Office Research Study 240. Home Office: London.

Markert, J. (2001) Sing a song of drug use–abuse: four decades of drug lyrics in popular music-from the sixties through the nineties. Sociological Inquiry 71: 194–220.

Meijer, R. F., Grapendaal, M., Van Ooyen, M. M. J., et al. (2002) Geregistreerde drugcriminaliteit in cijfers – Achtergrondstudie bij het Justitie onderdeel van de Nationale Drugmonitor – Jaarbericht 2002, WODC: The Hague.

Millar, D., O’Dwyer, K. and Finnegan, M. (1998) Alcohol and Drugs as Factors in Offending Behaviour: Garda Survey. Research Report No. 7/98. Garda Research Unit: Tipperary, Ireland.

Mol, A. and van Vlaanderen, J. L. (2002) Ontwikkeling van de Cocaïne hulpvraag; Periode 1994–2000; Het lijntje doorgetrokken. Stichting Informatievoorziening Zorg (IVZ), Houten.

Molinae, M., Pecsteen, D., Hariga, F., et al. (2002), L’usage de drogues en communauté francaise. Rapport Communauté francaise 1999–2000. Ministère de la Communauté Francaise: Brussels.

Morral, A. R., McCaffrey, D. F. and Paddock, S. M. (2002) Reassessing the marijuana gateway effect. Addiction 97: 1493–504.

Narkotikakommissionen (2000) En strategi för lokalt narkotikaförebyggande arbete. Diskussionspromemoria nr 12. Narkotikakommissionen, Socialdepartementet: Stockholm.

National reports (2002) Reitox national reports.

ODCCP (2000) Demand Reduction, A Glossary of Terms. ODCPP, New York.

Observatorio Español Sobre Drogas (2002) Informe No. 5, Ministerio de Interior, Delegación del Gobierno para el Plan Nacional sobre Drogas.

O’Higgins, K. (1999) Social order problems. In Social Housing in Ireland: A Study of Success, Failure and Lessons Learned (Fahey, T. ed.). The Katherine Howard Foundation and Combat Poverty Agency, Dublin (Reported in Irish National Report).

Origer, A. (2002) Le coût économique direct de la politique et des interventions publiques en matière d’usage illicite de drogues au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, Séries de recherche no. 4. Point focal OEDT Luxembourg – CRP-Santé.

Origer, A. and Delucci, H. (2002) Etude épidemiologique et méthodologique des cas de décès liés à l’usage illicite de substances psycho-actives. Analyse comparative (1992–2000). Series de recherché no. 3. Point Focal OEDT Luxembourg-CRP Santé: Luxembourg.

Paglia, A. and Room, R. (1999) Preventing substance use problems among youth: a literature review and recommendations. Journal of Primary Prevention 20: 3–50.

Pant, A. and Dettmer, K. (2002) Videoprojekt: Erste Hilfe im Drogennotfall, Abschlussbericht. Institut für Prävention und psychosoziale Gesundheitsforschung, Freie Universität: Berlin.

Parker, H. and Egginton, R. (2002) Adolescent recreational alcohol and drugs careers gone wrong: developing a strategy for reducing risks and harms. International Journal of Drug Policy 13: 419–32.

Petraitis, J., Flay, B., Miller, T., et al. (1998) Illicit substance use among adolescents: a matrix of prospective predictors. Substance Use & Misuse 33: 2561–604.

Poschadel, S., Höger, R., Schnitzler, J. and Schreckenberg, D. (2003) Evaluation der Arbeit der Drogenkonsumräume in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Endbericht im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für Gesundheit. Schriftenreihe des Bundesministeriums für Gesundheit und Soziale Sicherung Bd. 149. Nomos-Verlagsgesellschaft: Baden-Baden.

Postma, M. J., Wiessing, L. G. and Jager, J. C. (2001) Pharmaco-economics of drug addiction; estimating the costs of hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus infection among injecting drug users in Member States of the European Union. UN Bulletin on Narcotics 53: 79–89.

Pudney, S. (2002) The road to ruin? Sequences of initiation into drug use and offending by young people in Britain. Home Office Research Study 253. Home Office: London.

Rehn, N., Room, R. and Edwards, G. (2001) Alcohol in the European Region – consumption, harm and policies. WHO – Regional Office for Europe: Copenhagen.

Reinås, K., Waal, H., Buster, M. C. A., et al. (2002) Strategic Choices for Reducing Overdose Deaths in Four European Cities. A Joint Project of the Cities of Oslo, Amsterdam, Copenhagen, and Frankfurt am Main. Drug and Alcohol Addiction Services of the Municipality of Oslo: Oslo.

Reinking, D., Nicholas, S., Van Leiden, I., et al. (2001) Daklozen in Den Haag; Onderzoek naar omvang en kenmerken van de daklozenpopulatie. Trimbos-instituut: Utrecht.

Seaman, S,. Brettle, R. and Gore, S. (1998) Mortality from overdose among drug users recently released from prison: database linkage study. British Medical Journal 316: 426–8.

Shillington, A. M. and Clapp, J. D. (2002) Beer and bongs: differential problems experienced by older adolescents using alcohol only compared to combined alcohol and marijuana use. American Journal Drug Alcohol Abuse 28: 379–97.

Single, E., et al. (2001) International Guidelines for Estimating the Costs of Substance Abuse, 2nd edn.

Skolverket (2000) Nationella kvalitetsgranskningar 1999. Skolverket: Stockholm.

Social Exclusion Unit (2002) Young Runaways. British Office of the Deputy Prime Minister: London.

Spooner, C., Hall, W. and Lynskey, M. (2001) Structural Determinants of Youth Drug Use. Australian National Council on Drugs: Woden, Australia.

Sporer, A. (2003) Strategies for preventing heroin overdose. British Medical Journal 326: 442–4.

Springer, A., Uhl, A., et al. (1999). Bedeutung und Konsum von psychoaktiven Substanzen bei österreichischen Jugendlichen. Ludwig Boltzmann-Institut für Suchtforschung und Österreichisches Jugendforschungsinstitut. Unveröffentlichte Studie im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für soziale Sicherheit und Generationen. Vienna (Reported in Austrian National Report).

Stauffacher, M. (1998) Treated Drug Users in 22 European Cities. Annual update.1996 Trends 1992–1996. Pompidou Group, Council of Europe: Strasbourg.

Stephenson, J. (2001) Former addicts face barriers to treatment for HCV. Journal of the American Medical Association 285: 1003–5.

Stevens, A., Berto, D., Kerschl, V., et al. (2003) QCT Europe: Literature Review Summary. University of Kent: Canterbury, UK.

Stoever, H. (2001). Assistance to Drug Users in European Union Prisons: An Overview Study, EMCDDA scientific report. EMCDDA: Lisbon and London.

Swadi, H. (1999) Individual risk factors for adolescent substance use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 55: 209–24.

Tait, R. J, Hulse, G. K., Robertson, S. I. and Sprivulis, P. (2002) Multiple hospital presentations by adolescents who use alcohol or other drugs. Addiction 97: 1269–75.

Tobler, N. (2001) Prevention is a two-way process. Drug and Alcohol Findings No. 5, pp. 25–7. The Findings Partnership: London.

Tomas, B. (2001) Möglichkeiten und Grenzen sozialer Integration von SuchtmittelkonsumentInnen – Erfahrungen aus der Praxis. Tagungsband der Enquete Wirkungskreise – Was wirkt in der ambulanten Suchttherapie? Was braucht ambulante Suchttherapie um zu wirken?, pp. 56–64. Verein Dialog: Vienna.

Uunk, W. J. G. and Vrooman, J. C. (2001) Sociale uitsluiting. In Armoedemonitor 2001, pp. 139–62. SCP/CBS: The Hague.

Varescon-Pousson, I., Boissonnas, A. and Ionescu, S. (1997) La surdose non mortelle: etude descriptive d’une population de toxicomanes. Psychologie Française 3: 255–60.

Vermeulen, K. T., Hendriks, V. M. and Zomerveld, R. (1999) Drangbehandeling in Den Haag: Evaluatieonderzoek naar de effectiviteit van het behandelprogramma Triple-Ex voor justitiabele verslaafden. Parnassia Addiction Research Centre (PARC): The Hague.

Vestel, V., Bakken, A., Geir, H. and Moshuus Tormod, Ø. (1997) Ungdomskultur og narkotikabruk. NOVA Temahefte 1/97.

Víllalbi, J. R. and Brugal, M. T. (1999) Sobre la epidemia de heroína, su impacto, su contexto y las políticas sanitarias. Medicina Clinica (Barcelona) 112: 736–7.

Vrieling, I., Van Alem, V. C. M. and Van de Mheen, H. (2000) Drop-out onder allochtonen in de ambulante verslavingszorg 1994–1998. IVV/IVO: Houten/Rotterdam.

Waidner, G. (1999) Die Viktimisierungserfahrungen drogenabhängiger Personen. Eine Untersuchung mit qualitativen Verfahren. Unveröffentlichte Diplomarbeit an der Grund- und Integrativwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien: Vienna.

Warner-Smith, M., Lynskey, M., Darke, S. and Hall, W. (2001) Heroin overdose: prevalence, correlates, consequences and interventions. A report prepared by the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales. Australian National Council on Drugs: Woden, Australia.

WHO (1998) Opioid overdose: trends, risk factors, interventions and priorities for action. World Health Organization, Programme on Substance Abuse, Division of Mental Health and Prevention of Substance Abuse: Geneva.

Wiessing, L. (2001) The access of injecting drug users to hepatitis C treatment is low and should be improved, Eurosurveillance Weekly, Issue 31.